- 贺清明 He Qingming, 湖北农垦进军非洲再添生力军 (Hubei State Farm marches another victorious army into Africa), 中国农业新闻网, 7 January 2003 (via World-Story)
Hubei State Farm (湖北农垦) and a company called 与襄阳万宝粮油公司 have signed an agreement to develop a 50,000-mu (33 square km) farm in Mozambique, largely growing wet rice.
- 中非基金助力中国汽车业“抱团”开拓非洲市场 (China-Africa Development Fund helps Chinese auto industry open up African market as a group), 人民网-银行频道 | 12 December 2012 (via World-Story)
Four companies, Tianyu First Automobile African Investment 天与一汽非洲投资有限公司, China-Africa Huachen Investments, Qirui Overseas Business Investments 奇瑞海外实业投资有限公司 and China Northern Automobile, have signed an agreement with the China-Africa Development Fund to jointly promote car production in Africa. All of them already have production facilities in Africa.
- Martin Kadzere, “Zimbabwe: Debt Holds Up Power Project,”The Herald (Harare), 10 December 2012 (via China Global)
Sinohydro said it would not release funding for the Kariba South dam extension until Zimbabwe repays the Eximbank $27 million for agricultural equipment.
- PKU African Tele-Info 118 (4 December 2012)
All public schools on Lagos will teach Chinese, was announced at the third Chinese-African Cooperation Roundtable in Wanning, Hainan.
- World Bank-China knowledge hub for development, World Bank via SAFPI, 28 November 2012
The World Bank Group and China have launched a new knowledge hub to improve development outcomes, aiming to spread practical knowledge from China’s successes in reducing poverty both within China as well as to other countries. Initially, the knowledge hub will help find environmentally friendly solutions to expand urban transport in China’s cities. Under the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on the World Bank-China Knowledge Hub for Development signed in Beijing by World Bank president Kim Young Jim and China’s minister of finance, Xie Xuren, the first pilot, called TRANS-FORM, will focus on urban transport.
- 安哥拉社会住房项目一期顺利交验 (First phase of social housing project in Angola handed over smoothly), 工人日报, 7 November 2012
The 4th Bureau of China Railway Construction has completed the first 424 buildings, with a total of 9808 residential units. A clinic and a school have also been completed.
- 白云怡 Bai Yunyi，中美洲：中国投资的“新热点” (Central America: a new “hot spot” for Chinese investment), 法制周末 13 November 2012
Nicaragua has signed an agreement to build a new canal linking the Atlantic with the Pacific. The planned investment is $30bn. A company has been registered in Hong Kong to secure investment and act as general contractor.
- “Nigeria: Group Seeks Protection of Chinese Nationals,” This Day (Lagos), 7 November 2012
The secretary of the Goods Made-in-China Importers Association (GMIA), Chief Udoka Charles Udeogaranya, said that “we would be pleased to see the Federal Government give the Chinese a well deserving immigration status in Nigeria that is due to the highest provider of jobs in country, as well as focus more on China and put up infrastructures that can facilitate local manufacturing in Nigeria.” Udeogaranya claimed that Chinese nationals have “contributed” to creating 35 million jobs in Nigeria and noted that China is now the largest importer of Nigerian oil and agricultural products.
- Lovemore Chikova, “China Warns Indisciplined Nationals,” The Herald (Zimbabwe), 8 November 2012
Director-General Lu Shaye of the Department of African Affair at China’s foreign ministry said that the ministry was handling the cases of Chinese engaging in “unruly behaviour” in Africa “seriously and we are seriously studying what measures to take to prevent such incidents. … The Chinese government strongly criticises companies and individuals who do not kindly treat Africans and who take actions that affect the people’s rights. Such acts have seriously tarnished China’s image in Africa and seriously undermined our relations.” This is probably the most strongly-worded statement in a series of similar ones over the past few years. The article does not make clear what specific cases Lu was referring to.
- Ghana Police Kill Chinese Citizen, Detain 100 in Mining Raid, Bloomberg, 15 OCtober 2012 (via Chinese-in-Africa-Africans-in-China)
Police in Ghana killed a 16-year-old Chinese citizen in a raid and detained more than 100 other Chinese on suspicion of illegal gold mining, according to a statementon the Chinese embassy’s website. Ghana, like Suriname and Ecuador (see earlier News), has faced an influx of illegal small-scale miners from China. Foreigners are barred from participating in small-scale mining in Ghana. The Chinese government reacted with unusual firmness to the killing: “We demand the Ghanaian side investigate the case and punish the perpetrators as soon as possible,” Foreign Ministry spokesman Hong Lei said. Chinese ambassador Gong Jianzhong called for compensation to the family of the victim.
- 中石油将在缅甸援建的社会公益项目移交给缅方 (CNPC to hand over public utility projects in Burma to Burmese side), Xinhua, 15 September 2012 (via World-Story)
The projects include a hospital in a place identified as “新阶镇” in “Mandalay Province,” 5 clinics and 2 schools. In total, CNPC has signed a commitment to spend $6 million on social projects, of which 8 schools and 19 clinics have been completed.
- 中铁一局获签圭卡美拉水电站项目合同 (China Railways Construction 1st Bureau signs contract for Camera dam in Guyana), Ministry of Commerce announcement, 14 September 2012
The contract is worth $500 million, including power lines and roads, and will be the largest foreign investment in Guyana to date.
- “Bosnia and Herzegovina: Agreements on construction and financing of HPP Ulog and TPP Stanari have been signed in Beijing,” Ekapija, 14 September 2012 (via International Rivers)
The regional electricity company EFT, active across Southeastern Europe, signed an agreement with Sinohydro on the construction of the Ulog hydropower plant on the Neretva under the EPC model (engineering, procurement and construction) model, financed by China Development Bank). Dongfang Electric is also part of the consortium. The total investment value is 60 million euros. This is the second power building in Bosnia which the EFT will build with Chinese partners and fund through the Chinese Development Bank. A separate agreement has been signed for the construction of the Stanari thermal power plant, with a total investment value of 550 million euros, of which Dongfang Electric’s contract amounts to 350 million euros, also to be financed by the China Development Bank. International Rivers notes that Sinohydro has stated that this is its first successful hydropower project contract bid in Europe. The situation seems similar to that in Peru. On 30 August, a subsidiary of Power Construction Corporation of China had signed an MoU to construct two dams in Montenegro
- Wei Gu, “To Ease Fears, Huawei Goes to Britain,” Reuters, 13 September 2012
Huawei has offered to invest $1bn in Britain over the next five years, buy $1bn worth of equipment, and double its work force in the country.
- 曲晓丽，捕鱼证叩开中非渔业合作之门 (Fishing licences open door to Chinese-African fisheries cooperation), 商报, 12 September 2012 (via World-Story)
Five central- and provincial-level Chinese state fisheries companies have established joint ventures in Morocco, where they offer buyers’ credit to the JVs in the form of ships and equipment, while Moroccan companies apport their fishing licences and onshore infrastructure.
- Andrew E. Kramer, “Land-rich Russia lures cash-poor Chinese,” International Herlad Tribune, 11 September 2012, p. 16.
The article profiles one of nine private Chinese vegetable farms in Sverdlovsk Province. It is run by a former trader at the Ekaterinburg market who bought shares of a former collective farm from villagers and recruited peasants from Heilongjiang to work on it. This year, he received a quote for 70 Chinese workers from the Russian Federal Migration Service. The work is seasonal; in the winter, the workers and the owner return to China. Workers earn about $650 a month. According to the article, Chinese companies also lease about a million acres of farmland and two million acres of forest, mostly in Eastern Siberia.
- Rudolph Chimelli, “Pharaonisches Unterfangen” (A pharaonic enterprise), Sueddeutsche Zeitung (Munich), 30 August 2012, p. 1
China State Construction Engineering Corp. has received a contract from the Algerian government to build the world’s tallest minaret in Algiers. 10,000 Chinese workers are expected to work on it. The company is already building the East-West highway in the country.
- Matthias Williams, Maldives says China to lend it $500 million”, Reuters, 30 August 2012
Maldives President Mohammed Waheed announced ahead of a visit to China that the loans would comprise “an agreement for a $150 million, primarily for infrastructure and housing projects”, plus $350 million provided by Eximbank. China had recently set up an embassy in the Maldives. Waheed said that China is the top source of tourists in the Maldives.
- 中国电建投资的老挝南俄5水电站大坝首次泄洪 (Nam Ou 5 dam in Laos, invested by China Power, started), SASAC press release, 16 August 2012
This is Sinohydro’s first project in Laos, started in 2008 under a BOT agreement. In 2011, Sinohydro and some other companies under SASAC established ChinaPower as an entity to manage overseas projects.
- 梅正海 Mei Zhenghai, 中联设备助力厄瓜多尔多个水电站建设项目 (Zoomlion helps hydropower projects in Ecuador), 中国工程机械商贸网, 9 August 2012
Changsha-based Zoomlion (中联重科) is supplying machinery to three Chinese hydropower projects in Ecuador, including Sinohydro’s Coca-Codo Sinclair dam project, which now apparently started after several setbacks (see earlier news). According to this report, the total investment in the Sinclair project is $2.3bn. The other two projects mentioned are Gezhouba’s Supradora and Harbin Electrical Equipment International Contracting Co. 哈尔滨电气国际工程公司’s newly signed Minas San Francisco project. It is interesting that Zoomlion set up an office in Ecuador and project offices on each site.
- Muhammad Bello, “Nigeria: FG Signs U.S.$1.49 Billion Rail Contract With China,” This Day (Lagos), 19 July 2012
The Nigerian government signed a $1.49 billion contract with China Civil Engineering Construction Company Nig Ltd for the construction of the Lagos-Ibadan railway.
- “Local miners lament ‘Chinese take-over’ at Imbaimadai,” Kaieteur News Online (Georgetown), 17 July 2012
At a village meeting at Imbaimadai, inland Guyana, facilitated by the Guyana Women Miners Organization (GWMO) on Sunday, villagers complained that they were ordered to cease small-scale gold mining operations in favour of a Chinese company. Previously, the place had been “flooded” by Brazilians and “Spanish-speaking nationals,” but“’The difference between the Brazilians and Chinese is that the Brazilians would employ one, one Guyanese, so we would still catch a li’l hand even though it is not we dredge; but not these Chinese. Dem does do everything dem self.’ Further, the residents said that the Chinese bring in all their supplies and hardly support any of the village shops.”
- 曲晓丽 Qu Xiaoli, 中国商超进军非洲缺少什么？ (Is something missing from China’s trade assault on Africa?) 商报网-国际商报 | 2012-06-19
The article argues that there is an opportunity for Chinese businesses to invest in supermarket chains in Africa. 天地亿万多 already has stores in Madagascar, Togo, and Mozambique. The stores were built by 安徽外经建设（集团）有限公司 using aid money.
- 中国水电与老挝签署南欧江流域梯级水电站一期特许经营协议和购电协议 (Sinohydro and Laos sign agreement allowing operation of Nam Ou cascade hydropower plant’s first stage), SASAC press release, 14 June 2012
The cascade will consist of 7 dams. The planned investment exceeds $2 bn. An agreement on purchasing the generated electricity has been signed as well. All of the electricity will be sold to Electricite du Laos. Sinohydro holds a 85% stake in the joint venture, while EdL holds the rest.
- Khalid Mustafa, “China approves $448 million loan for Neelum-Jhelum project,” The News (Karachi), 23 May 2012
Waqar Masood, secretary of Pakistans Economic Affairs Division, said that
“China has emerged as the largest development partner and creditor of Pakistan in the last three years and its loan portfolio has increased to whopping $3.3 billion.”
- A kínai szerződésekre és az IMF-tárgyalások részleteire kíváncsi az >MSZP, HVG (Budapest), 4 May 2012
Hungary’s minister of the national economy signed an agreeement with the vice-president of China Development Bank on 1 May about a €1bn loan. The opposition Socialists demand that the government reveal which projects are to be financed with this loan and how the decisions have been made. They also want assurances that the loans will benefit Hungarian SMEs.
- China to Lend South Sudan $8 Billion, Voice of America, 28 April 2012 (via China-in-Africa)
The loan is to fund agriculture, telecommunications, and hydropower projects, and is one of the largest by China to an African country (on par with Angola and Congo-Kinshasa). It comes against the history of China supporting the government of (North) Sudan in the civil war and now trying to mediate between the two Sudans.
- Lei Min 雷敏, 一季度我国非金融类对外投资同比增长超九成 (Non-financial foreign investment by our country in first quarter grows 90% over same period), Xinhua, 17 April 2012 (via World-Story)
MOFCOM announced that mainland Chinese investors invested $16.6 billion in 1096 foreign entities in 109 countries in the first quarter, a 95% increase over the same period last year. The stock of FDI from China was $339 billion at the end of March. Completed engineering procurement contracts (EPC), which are not included in Chinese FDI statistics, amounted to $20.8 billion during the same period, a 23% increase over last year. Also during the same period, 91 thousand Chinese workers were sent abroad on labour contracts, 2,000 fewer than during the same period last year. The stock of mainland Chinese contract workers abroad at the end of March was 809 thousand, or 40 thousand more than last year.
- Si Hongliang 斯宏亮, 中国葛洲坝集团承建的老挝北方农村电气化工程开始供电 (Northern Laos village electrification project built by China Gezhouba Group starts power supply), Xinhua, 16 April 2012 (via World-Story)
The project involved building nearly 1300 km of power lines and 232 substations. At the opening ceremony, the head of Gezhouba International, Ren Jianguo, announced a donation of $24 thousand to local “education and welfare.” Lao PM Thongsing Thammavong praised Gezhouba for “their desire to share in local development and enthusiastically uphold social responsibility 与当地共同发展的理念，积极担当社会责任”.
- 大唐集团首个海外投资电网项目在柬埔寨正式带电运行 (Datang Group’s first overseas power line project enters trial phase), 国际电力网 | 2012-04-11 (via World-Story)
This is the Battambang-Phnom Penh high voltage line in Cambodia, which Datang constructed in conjunction with the Stung Atay hydropower plant, both in a BOT arrangement. (In order to go around Cambodian laws that prohibit the same companies to both generate and carry electricity, this investment was done via a locally registered daughter company, but this article simply refers to Datang as the investor.) The line includes three power substations.
- 万宝粮油将产业链延伸至国外 在非洲建五千亩示范田 (Wanbao Grain and Oil expands production overseas, sets up 5000-mu demonstration farm in Africa), Xiangyang Wanbao, 10 April 2012
In 2011, the company leased the 333-hectare Gaza Friendship Farm, a former site of Chinese agricultural assistance to Mozambique, for $1/ha for 50 years and invested about 80 million yuan in rice growing and a rice processing plant and silo. It plans to double the planted surface next year.
- Zhang Yanting 张妍婷, 华立将在缅甸建工业园 (Huali to set up industrial park in Burma), 浙江在线-钱江晚报 | 2012-04-3
Huali, a Zhejiang-based company, is already setting up the Rayong Thai-Chinese Industrial Park, originally scheduled to open in 2015. Export-oriented production costs in both locations are now considered lower than in Zhejiang.
- Paul Mena Erazo, “China intenta lavar su imagen tras irrumpir en la minería de Ecuador,” El Pais, 16 March 2012
The Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities in Ecuador (CONAIE), the country’s largest “indigenous” umbrella group, is cemanding the cancellation of a $5.4 bn contract with a Chinese-owned group called Ecuacorriente, signed on 5 March, to invest in Ecuador’s copper mining in the Amazon region. Previously, environmentalists protested in front of the Chinese embassy in Quito with banners that read “Chinese enterprises out of Ecuador.” The Chinese ambassador said the Chinese government urges Chinese companies to respect environmental norms and work with local communities.
- On 22 March, Peking University’s Centre for African Studies, in cooperation with the Chahaer Society, a private foreign-affairs think tank, organised the second training on public diplomacy for Chinese companies operating in Africa. (PKU African Tele-Info 84, p. 2.)
- Cheap Labour in Bulgaria: Chinese Open First Car Plant in Europe,” Spiegel Online, 22 February 2012
Bulgarian Prime Minister Boyko Borisov attended the opening of Great Wall’s new factory in the village of Bahovitsa. The plant is to be operated jointly by Great Wall and the Bulgarian firm Litex Motors. In the midterm, Great Wall plans to assemble around 50,000 automobiles per year. The number of workers is expected to grow from the current total of 120 to 2,000.
- Kenya-CCTV Africa,” CCTV (China Central Television), 11 January 2012 (via Josh Maiyo)
China Central Television has officially launched CCTV Africa, a news production center based in Kenya that focuses on African news and perspectives as well as international news. Simultaneously, CCTV launched a mobile TV application for Africa, CNTV, which allows viewers in Africa to watch documentaries, educational programs, TV dramas and films through their mobile devices. Kenya’s vice president Kalonzo Musyoka attended the launch and said that CCTV’s choice of Kenya as its African news production hub “is a great honor” that shows the “brotherly ties between Kenya and the People’s Republic of China.”
- “点亮非洲”水电项目圆满竣工 (Lighting Up Africa Project Fully Completed), 北极星电力网新闻中心, 4 January 2012 (via World-Story)
汝城县水电有限责任公司, apparently a small Chinese hydropower company, has inaugurated the first micro-hydropower station in Africa funded by Chinese aid in the framework of the “Lighting Up Africa” programme. The dam, whose name is Romanized as 西瓦安都 (Xiwaandu), is in Zambia, and has been supported by UNIDO. Previously, the same company has exported mini-dams to Indonesia, Mongolia, and Nepal.
- 中国进出口银行超过世行成非洲最大贷款提供方 (China Export-Import Bank overtakes World Bank as biggest lender to Africa), 中国经济网, 29 December 2011
Over the past ten years, Eximbank lent $67.2bn to sub-Saharan Africa, vs World Bank’s $5.47bn.
- Pei Guangjiang 裴广江,“中国制造”促进非洲工业化—-中国制造企业走进非洲 (“Made in China” supports African industrialization: Chinese manufacturing firms enter Africa), People’s Daily Online, 27 December 2011; 中铁建订非洲铁路12亿美元合同 (China, Ethiopia sign $1.3bn contract for African railway), 证券时报 | 2011-12-22
The Lifan car plant in Addis Abeba is expanding capacity to 3000/year. Changcheng (Great Wall) and Geely have also set up a jeep and pickup plant and a compact car plant in Ethiopia, respectively. Futian is setting up a plant in Nairobi, scheduled to open this year and with a planned capacity of 10 thousand/year. And King Long, a bus manufacturer from Xiamen, is setting up a plant in Senegal. In separate news, 中国铁建(China Railway Construction) signed an EPC contract worth $1.2bn to build a railway between 米埃索 (Miyasu) , 迪雷达瓦 (Dileidawa) and 达瓦利 (Dawali). The track will be built according to Chinese standards (rather than the European ones common in Africa).
- “中企无需在巴西拷贝非洲模式”(“China needn’t copy the African model in Brazil”), 东方早报, 15 December 2011
China has been the largest trading partner of Brazil since 2009 and the largest source of FDI since 2010. In that year, $17 bn out of a total FDI of $40 bn came from China. In the first 10 months of 2011, Chinese companies announced 16 planned new investments worth $7 bn, 44% of which is in carmaking.
- 姜建清：工行支持非洲在建项目资金达70亿美金 (Jiang Jianqing: ICBC’s support for ongoing projects in Africa reaches $7bn), Netease Finance, 15 December 2011
The acronym refers to the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China.
- 中国警察近日开始在湄公河进行联合巡逻执法 (Chinese police starts joint law-enforcement patrols on Mekong today), 新京报, 10 December 2011
The patrols are part of a new Chinese-Lao-Thai-Burmese joint operation headquartered in China, set up after 13 Chinese sailors were killed on the Golden Triangle stretch of the Mekong. The article does not detail the powers of the patrols.
- 国机集团获签柬埔寨首个炼油厂项目 (Sinomach gets contract to build first oil refinery in Cambodia), SASAC press release, 9 December 2011 (via World-Story)
The investment is $1.6 bn. Sinomach (China Machine-Building Group) is a large state enterprise that does not specialise in oil.
- 缅甸太平江一期水电站CDM项目获国家发改委批准 (State Development and Reform Commission approves Taipingjiang 1 CDM hydropower plant in Burma), 北极星电力网新闻中心, 7 December 2011 (via World-Story)
This project by Datang is the first “clean development” (CDM) power project in Burma and the first such Chinese power plant abroad intended to generate energy for China. The project is a 35+5 year BOT. No investment figure was listed in the report.
- 有色集团获中央企业优秀社会责任实践奖 (CNAL gets Excellence in Implementing CSR prize), press release, 24 November 2011 (via World-Story)
The prize was awarded by the State’Council’s State Assets Commission (国资委) for CNAL’s corporate social responsibility activities in the Zambia-China Economic Cooperation Zone in Chambishi at a CSR conference at which it exhorted state enterprises to make CSR “a core activity.”
- 朱一丹 Zhu Yidan and 方平原 Fang Pingyuan, 宁波首个海外小商品市场落户非洲 (First Ningbo small goods market opens in Africa), 宁波日报, 8 November 2011 (via World-Story)
The Benin Chinese Brands Exposition Centre, a five-story building that will house about 40 shops, meeting rooms, accommodation, and a restaurant, will open in Cotonou in February. Financed in part with Chinese aid, it is a BOT project that will, for 50 years, be managed by Tianshi (浙江天时国际经济技术合作有限公司) and then handed over to the Benin government. Previously, Chinese media reported on similar initiatives in Africa and Central Americal by merchants from Wenzhou.
- 唐贵江 Tang Guijiang, 中国服装企业生产外移浙成趋势 (Chinese garment companies moving production overseas becomes trend), 中国新闻网, 1 November 2011
The average wage of a common worker at a Canton garment company has risen from 1,800 yuan three years ago to 3,000 yuan. Another profiled company, based in Ningbo, is moving its production to Cambodia.
- Xinhua, 中国国家开发银行大力推进向非洲中小企业专项贷款增资10亿美元 (China Development Bank launches $1 bn credit line for African SMEs), 27 October 2011 (via World-Story)
In 2009, a similar credit line resulted in ２４ projects receiving financing totaling $６３２million and creating ６０００ jobs. According to a bank official, since 2005, CDB has granted loans totalling $7bn in Africa.
- 升达林业抢柬埔寨2.26万公林业弟资源 (Shengda Forestry grabs 22.6 thousand ha of forestry resources in Cambodia), 证卷时报, 24 October 2011
The area is divided into three chunks and consists of hardwood. The company received a 70-year concession, including a ten-year licence to fell trees. The timber will be processed locally. Shengda’s CEO estimates local wages to be 200-300 yuan.
- Xinhua, 国开行授信5亿多美元助力柬埔寨国内项目建设 (China Development Bank promises over $500 million to support domestic projects in Cambodia), 21 October 2011 (via World-Story)
The projects include a coal-fired power plant in Sihanoukville by Ordos, the group involved in the controversial Boeung Kak Lake real estate project in Phnom Penh. The group is cooperating with Sino-Khmer tycoon, ruling party senator and Hun Sen crony Lau Meng Khin on both projects.
- 李连星 Li Lianxing, 特稿：援助非洲抗击饥饿 (Special report: helping Africa combat famine), China Daily, 14 October 2011
The Chinese government announced that its famine-alleviation aid to the Horn of Africa has reached nearly $70 million, the largest humanitarian aid package in the PRC’s history and, according to Kenya’s vice-president, the largest national contribution to Kenya’s famine relief. Before this announcement, the China-Kenya Commercial Association 中肯经贸协会 and other Chinese organisations in Kenya donated 60 tons of maize and 5 tons of soybeans to 9,000 villagers in Lorenge Lup.
- Claudia Schuffner, “State Grid Disputa Transmissao de Belo Monte,” Valor Economico (Rio de Janeiro), 11 October 2011 (cia China Global)
State Grid Brazil has invested nearly $ 3.5 billion in Brazil since last year, acquiring seven power transmission companies. It has now also bought a representative building in Rio for $205 billion. Brazil is the second target of the State Grid’s overseas investment after the Philippines, where it owns a 40% stake in the National Grid Corporation. State Grid Brazil’s CEO Cai Hongxian said he has no plans to bring Chinese labour to Brazil.
- Xinhua, 中石油向缅甸捐130多万美元建8所学校 (CNPC donates over $1.3 million to Burma to build eight schools,” 4 October 2011 (via World-Story)
The donation is the first instalment of a promised package of $6 million. The schools are to be constructed along the pipeline, primarily near the port of Kyaukpyu. The announcement came just around the time the Burmese government the construction of the Myitsone dam, amidst specualation that the construction of the pipeline might also be in trouble.
- Martin Kadzere, “Western Interference Stalls Anjin’s Diamond Sales – Mushohwe,” The Herald (Harare), 4 October 2011 (via AllAfrica.com)
This government-run Zimbabwean paper reports that Anjin, a joint venture between AFECC of China and the Zimbabwe National Army, has been denied Kimberly Process certification and is hence unable to sell its diamonds internationally. The company and the Zimbabwean government say that Anjin meets certification requirements and has furthermore built more than 400 houses, a clinic, a primary and a secondary school for villagers relocated from the mining site.
- China splits power industry, launches two new SOEs to boost reform,” Xinhua’s [sic] China Economic Information Service, 29 September 2011 (via International Rivers)
Sinohydro, HydroChina, and the design and construction units previously affiliated with the State Grid and China Southern Power Gird in some regions, will merge into PowerCorp, with assets totaling 196 billion yuan (30.63 billion U.S. dollars) and 202,700 employees. China Energy Engineering Group (CEEG) has taken over Gezhouba and the China Power Engineering Consulting Group Corporation, along with auxiliary units previously operated by the State Grid and Southern Gird in other regions.
- Sunday Willams, “Nigeria: Chinese Coy [sic] to Build 10,000 Housing Units in the Country,” Daily Trust (Lagos), 21 September 2011 (via AllAfrica.com)
The Shangai Green Building System Company [sic] has signed a MoU with the promoters of Kidney Island Energy Free Trade Zone project in Port Harcourt, covering “tourism, civil construction, oil and gas, estate development, marine transportation, infrastructure and Pharmaceuticals.” It also will construct over 10, 000 housing units in Abuja, Lagos and Port Harcourt.
- “Bolgár Great Wall,” Népszabadság (Budapest), 21 September 2011
Chinese carmaker Great Wall introduced its first European-made car, to be produced in Bulgaria at a new plant employing 2,000 workers and costing 80 million euro.
- Floyd Norris, “As pattern shifts, China’s surplus falls,” International Herald Tribune, 17-18 September, p. 12.
China’s foreign-trade surplus has fallen by a third since 2007. It now has a deficit not only with a number of resource-exporting countries like Brazil and Australia, but also with Germany and Ireland.
- Linda Hutchinson-Jafar, 中国向加勒比国家提供10亿美元贷款 (China offers $1 bn loan to Caribbean countries), Reuters Chinese service, 13 September 2011 (via World-Story)
The loan was offered by the China Development Bank at the China-Caribbean Forum that took place in Port of Spain, and is to be used for infrastructure development.
- 中国将向肯尼亚提供1560万美元紧急粮食援助 (China will provide $15.6 million in food aid to Kenya), Xinhua, 25 August 2011； 中国累计向非洲之角国家提供4.432亿元援助 (Chinese aid to Horn of Africa countries totals 443.2 million yuan, 国际在线, 18 August 2011 (via World-Story)
- “Cambodia shrugs off aid curb,” Asia Times Online, 23 August 2011 (via China Global); Toh Han Shih, “” Controversial Chinese projects in Cambodia bow to public pressure,” South China Morning Post, 3 September 2011
The World Bank announced that it will suspend further lending to Cambodia because of the evictions accompanying the Lake Boeung Kak project. The project’s investor, Erdos, has pledged to invest a total of $3 bn on property development, metal processing and power generation, far more than the World Bank’s Cambodian portfolio. Nonetheless, days after the announcement, Prime Minister Hun Sen ordered the allocation of 12.4 hectares of land for the evicted families.
- 李春莲 Li Chunlian, 中石油6大海外项目因故中止损失12亿 海外扩张屡败屡战 (CNPC stops 6 major overseas deals, loses 1.2bn; battle overseas expansion goes on),证券日报, 22 August 2011 (via World-Story)
The three big Chinese oil companies (Sinopec, CNOOC and CNPC) have all sustained major losses in their overseas acquisitions in recent years. This year, CNOOC and CNPC have been forced out of planned deals in Ghana, Indonesia, and Canada, but in the light of this analysis it may be better for them. The article quotes various company managers and experts as saying that the acquisitions go through anyway because they are seen as representing national interest and as learning opportunities. Other more critical experts say that losses are an inevitable consequence of legal constraints, lack of experience, and unclear responsibility.
- “Laos in top ten Chinese new investment destinations,” Vientiane Times, 18 August 2011 (via China Global)
According to a report on the website of the Ministry of Commerce of China, “from January to May this year the value of China’s newly signed foreign contract projects reached US$55.98 billion, up by 23.2 percent year on year. The top ten countries and regions in terms of value of newly signed contracts with China were India, Hong Kong, Laos, Pakistan,
Kazakhstan, Bahamas, Malaysia, Angola, Nigeria and Algeria.”
- PKU African Tele-Info reports in its No. 55 (16 August 2011) that the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences has been commissioned by the Ministry of Commerce’s Department of Foreign Aid to carry out research on “improving the management and protection of Chinese youth volunteers abroad.” Interestingly, the project is headed by Zhang Min of CASS’ Europe Research Institute.
- “China to pay for most of 257 km Cambodia-Vietnam rail link,” McClatchy-Tribune Information Services, 27 July 2011
A feasibility study for the Cambodia-Vietnam portion of the Pan-Asia Railway by an institute under the Chinese railway ministry estimates the cost at $686 million, of which “China has offered to contribute $500 million.” The article does not mention what form this contribution would take.
កម្មករដាំដំឡូងឲ្យក្រុមហ៊ុនភាពីម៉ិច ៤ រូប ត្រូវមេការជនជាតិចិនចាប់ធ្វើទារុណកម្ម (Four workers tortured by Chinese manager at Pheapimex), Radio Free Asia Khmer service, 11 July 2011
According to the report, four Khmer workers were tortured by a Chinese manager at the Pheapimex-Wuzhishan joint venture plantation in Pursat Province, Cambodia. The manager hit them with stick and electric-shock stick, causing serious injuries, as punishment for instigating a violent strike that allegedly destroyed company equipment such as tractors. The four men deny these accusations. The case is now at the provincial court.
- 中国投资促进柬矿业发展 (Chinese investment helps Cambodian mining development), Phnom Penh Evening Post 金边晚报， 6 July 2011
According to the head of the Cambodian mines authority, there are currently 70 mining companies active in Cambodia, of which 17 are from China. These have 38 mining projects.
- Mercedes Alvaro, “China, Ecuador Sign $2 Billion Loan Deal,” Wall Street Journal, 27 June 2011 (via China Global)
Ecuador’s government on Monday signed a commercial loan agreement for $2 billion with China Development Bank.
- Hydropower Dams Fuelling Conflict in Burma,” Burma Rivers Network, 15 June 2011
“Fighting broke out between the Burma Army and the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) last week at the Dapein No. 1 and 2 dams, which are being constructed by China’s state-owned Datang Company, breaking a 17-year ceasefire. Scores of people have died and 2,000 refugees have fled to the China border. Burma Army had brought in hundreds of troops to secure the Dapein dams located near strategic KIO military bases. Fighting has now spread and clashes broke out yesterday” with the Shan State Army-North near the Shweli 1 Dam in northern Shan State. The army has also been dispatched to the Ywathit Dam site in Karenni State where a series of dams are also planned byDatang “on the Salween River and its tributaries. The Karenni armed resistance is active near the site and in December 2010 attacked a convoy of trucks transporting equipment to the dam. “Last month, four Chinese dam technicians disappeared from the Tasang Dam site on the Salween.”
- “Elbukták a kínaiak a lengyel sztrádaberuházást” (Chinese fail at Polish highway investment), Népszabadság Online, 14 June 2011
The Hungarian news agency reports that the Polish government cancelled a contract with China Overseas Engineering Group (COVEC) to build 50 km of a Warsaw-Lódz highway for the 2012 European football championship, because COVEC failed to provide guarantees for further financing and a schedule of payments for outstanding commitments. Construction has started, but stopped because subcontractors have not been paid on schedule. The Polish roads authority, GDDKiA, has announced that it will demand compensation. COVEC is one of the largest Chinese overseas contractors, and the project is important since this is the first road construction contract in the EU won by a Chinese company.
- 中国人巴西购地当地主，每平方米仅30元 (Chinese buy land in Brazil, become landowners at just 30 yuan a square metre), Sina.com.cn, 5 June 2011
Recent Chinese migrants in Brazil have been buying land as “holiday farms” （度假农场） as well as for investment.
- Electric Stations, China’s Sinohydro sign protocol-intention on construction of Suusamyr-Kokemeren cascade of hydropower plants,” AKIpress, 1 June 2011 (via International Rivers)
Sinohydro plans to begin construction of this cascade in Kyrgyzstan at the end of 2012 or at the beginning of 2013. Construction will last for 5 years. Sinohydro is expected to invest $2 billion.
- 中国中铁将承建中缅铁路项目(China Railway will build China-Burma railway project), 中国证券报 | 2011-05-27
China Railway Group 中国中铁 signed an MOU with the Burmese government to construct the 810 km railway from Ruili to the port of Kyaukpyu.
- 冯琳 Feng Lin, 荣成一企业雇用92名缅甸黑工被查处 罚款5万 (92 illegal Burmese workers found at Rongcheng company, fined 50 thousand) 人民网 | 2011-05-25 (via World-Story)
The company, a food manufacturer, was also required to pay 150 thousand for the deportation costs of the workers. Rongcheng is near Weihai in Shandong province. The workers were introduced to the factory in 2010 by two “snakeheads” (human smugglers) — one from Henan and another from Burma — as workers from Yunnan. Local police inspecting the plant did not suspect them of being foreigners because they spoke good Chinese, but later received a tipoff from Yunnan police. Previously, Burmese workers were reported mostly in the southern provinces, so the process is similar to the migration of illegal Mexican workers from the southwestern states of the US to the midwestern meatpacking plants.
- 中化海外投资遇险成本飞涨 地缘政治危机成主因 (Sinochem’s overseas investments run into soaring risk costs; geopolitical crisis is main reason) 第一财经日报 | 2011-05-24 (via World-Story)
Of the six overseas oilfield exploration licences obtained by Sinochem until 2009, two have not moved past the feasibility study, while three others have run up a loss of $1.5 million. Other major Chinese oil companies have similar problems. This is related to rising operating costs, plus — according to one expert — Sinochem’s policy of acquiring controlling stakes, which exposes it to more political risk.
- 中国扶贫基金会援助苏丹项目介绍 (An introduction to the Sudan project of the Chinese Poverty Alleviation Fund), PhoenixTV， 13 May2011
The Fund started its Sudan project in 2010, and has since build a model mother-and-child hospital with an investment of $700 thousand, donated medical equipment to a Sudanese organisation called BTO headed by a vice-president of the country, and organised trainings for Sudanese officials and “NGO leaders.” These included trips to Yunnan Province to study how the Fund cooperates with the Chinese government in poverty alleviation projects.
- 我国对外承包工程营业额达$922亿 规模不断扩大 (Our country’s foreign contracts volume reaches $92.2 billion, continues expanding), 中国经济网 | 2011-05-11 (via World-Story)
China Overseas Contractors Association 中国对外承包工程商会 released its 2010-11 annual report. At the end of 2010, there were 847 thousand Chinese contract workers abroad, the report says.
- 研究显示：中国海外直接投资快速增长 (Research shows China’s overseas investment growing rapidly), 中国新闻网 10 May2011 （via World-Story）
A report by the U.S. Asia Society estimates that China’s investments in the U.S. are likely to continue to grow at a pace of 100-130% a year. Zhang Dongsong, A vice-president of the China Foreign Trade Promotion Committee 中国国际贸易促进委员会 said that the cumulative total FDI of Chinese companies is $260 billion, while the yearly investment rate is currently $60 billion. There are 13 thousand foreign subsidiaries of PRC companies.
- 中柬签署水资源开发项目优惠贷款协议 (China, Cambodia sign agreement on concessional loan for water resources development project ), Xinhua, 10 May 2011
Eximbank and the Cambodian ministry of finance signed an agreement on a $52 million concessional loan to develop irrigation systems in Oddar Meanchey, Siem Reap and Bantheay Meanchey provinces.
- Liz Gooch, “Mainland China university to open Laos branch in 2012,” International Herald Tribune, 9 May 2011
People’s Daily has reported that Suzhou-based Soochow University is the first Chinese university to open a “branch campus” abroad, in Laos. It is to provide courses for 5,000 Lao students.
- 杨强 Yang Qiang, 林浩 Lin Hao， 刘森 Liu Sen, 专家建议中国与东盟合作建造世界第三大运河(Experts suggest China cooperate with ASEAN to build world’s third largest canal), Chinanews, 7 May 2011
Yang Shengming, a senior official at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, has suggested that China should cooperate with Thailand to build a new canal through the Isthmus of Kra (the narrowest point of Southern Thailand) from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean. Yang argued that like Spain, the Netherlands, Britain and America in the past, China can only become a “real trade power” (真正意义上的贸易强国) via the seas.
- 中国承包也在非洲急需转型 保工程与发展瓶颈 (Chinese contracting industry in Africa needs rapid transformation; contract projects run into bottlenecks), Global Times 环球时报 , 7 May 2011 (via World-Story)
Chinese contractors in Africa are having trouble sustaining growth without direct investment. Most companies are now contemplating BOT projects, but none have yet contracted one.
- Maya Ntanda, “Zambia: China Calls for Gender Equality,” The Times of Zambia, 6 May 2011 (via PKU African Tele-Info)
Speaking at a “female capacity building seminar for developing countries,” Fujian Province Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation deputy director Chen Ansheng said developing countries should promote gender equality in sectors such as agriculture, education, health in order to develop sustainably. Participating countries included, Nigeria, Kyrgyzstan, Cambodia, Palestine, Pakistan, Ethiopia, Malawi, Namibia, Ghana, Iran, Iraq, Uganda, Kenya and Zambia.
- 吴海飞 Wu Haifei, 中工国际再签海外大合同 (CAMC signs another major overseas contract), 羊城晚报, 29 April 2011
The Lao subsidiary of CAMC Engineering (中工国际）signed a contract to develop the Mekong riverside area of Vientiane. The investment value is $355 million. In the past ten days, CAMC has also won contracts to build a road in Zambia, two farm projects in Angola, and an airport in Chad. The Mekong embankment in Vientiane has been under redevelopment by what seemed to be Korean real estate companies for some time. This is the first major Chinese real estate project in Vientiane after the scrapping of the That Luang project, which was contracted in exchange for a Chinese-built stadium and generated huge resistance because of its location. (Personally, I am more sorry for the riverside.)
- 徐杨祎 Xu Yangwei, 四川将投资9.6亿美元在老挝建卫星通信产业园 (Sichuan to invest $960 million in Lao satellite communication industry park), Chinanews, 28 April 2011 (via World-Story)
Sichuan-based Linhai Group 林海集团 has signed an agreement with the Lao government to invest $960 million in a Lao satellite communication industry park. It will launch a satellite on a trajectory allocated to Laos. The plan includes research, education, and manufacturing facilities, to be completed in 2015 and to employ 10 thousand locals. Laos currently has no trained personnel and no existing industry parks, let alone in satellite communications, so it is likely that all of the skilled staff will be Chinese.
- 中国水电老挝签订南乌江水电项目开发的融资合作协议 (Sinohydro, Laos sign Nam Ou hydropower project financing agreement), 中国电力网, 26 April 2011 (via World-Story)
Sinohydro, China Development Bank and Electricité du Laos signed an agreement on a $1.8 billion loan.
- 中国石油在缅甸履行社会责任及时 (A chronicle of CNPC’s CSR implementation in Burma), CNPC press release, 18 April 2011
Among others, in this CSR report on Burma, China National Petroleum Corporation says that villagers on 马德, the Gulf of Bengal island where it is building a port that will be the starting point of the Burma-China pipeline have already received around $810 thousand in compensation. CNPC has also provided drinking water to villagers at designated times, and subsequently built a reservoir. In addition, it has donated $600 thousand of disaster relief aid after the various natural disasters in Burma in the past three years, presumably to the government; and donated medical equipment to the Kyaukpyu hospital. As for a culturally sensitive relationship with locals, Chinese and Burmese CNPC workers are said to have done volunteer work together rebuilding Buddhist temples. The report says Chinese workers have helped the families of Burmese workers in economic difficulties and presented lonely old people with consumer products.
- “Cameroon signs $542m China loan for power project,” Reuters, 3 May 2011; “Chinese firm wins bid on Cameroon hydropower project,” Xinhua, 13 May 2011
Cameroon’s government has announced that it secured a $542-million loan from the China Import-Export Bank to fund the construction of a hydroelectric dam on the Ntem River. In separate news, indicating the return of Western development agencies to hydropower funding, China Three Gorges Corp. (CTGPC) announced Friday that one of its subsidiaries, China International Water and Electric Corp., will build the Lom Pangar Hydropower Project, a contract worth 198 million U.S. dollars, jointly funded by World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA), the French Development Agency (AFD) and the European Investment Bank (BEI).
- “Honduras Signs Deal with Chinese Firm on Hydro Plant,” Latin American Herald Tribune, 21 April 2011
The Honduran government and Sinohydro signed a contract worth $50.5 million to construct a hydropower plant in eastern Honduras, the first of three agreed on in an MoU.
- Ekaphone Phouthonesy, “Chinese firm to build seven power plants on Nam Ou,” Vientiane Times, 13 April 2011
The Lao government and Sinohydro signed a master plan for building two major reservoirs and seven hydropower plants along the Nam Ou river with financing from the China Development Bank.
- 郭吉桐 Guo Jitong, 缅甸拉咱口岸再次关闭 “跨国蕉农”又受伤 (Burma closes Laiza crossing again; “transnational banana farmers” hurt), 每日经济新闻, 6 April 2011
Burma closed the Laiza border crossing again on 30 March. One Ruili company alone has 15,000 tons of banana stuck in Burma. The article suggests that most Chinese banana growers operate in Burma under contract farming agreements. The companies have sought the intervention of the Yunnan Province government.
- 康书伟 Kang Weishu, 太阳纸业定向募资用于老挝“林浆纸一体化”项目 (Taiyang Paper raises funds to support Lao “forest-paper-pulp” project), 中国证券报, 18 March 2011
Taiyang Paper is investing $200 million in a 10 thousand ha plantation (mostly under contract farming agreements) and a pulp-paper plant in Laos.
- 雷柏松 Lei Bosong, 中国援建柬埔寨金边港新集装箱码头项目开工 (Construction to start on new Phnom Penh container port, built with Chinese aid), Xinhua, 9 March 2011
The port is being built using a $28 million concessional loan from the Chinese government.
- 云南潇湘泛亚公司投资泛亚铁路老挝段即将奠基 (Yunnan Xiaoxiang Pan-Asian Co.’sPan-Asian Railway Lao section breaks ground), China Youth Daily, 10 March 2011 (via World-Story)
The Yunnan Xiaoxiang Pan-Asian Investment Company 云南潇湘泛亚投资有限公司办公室, formerly known as Xiaoxiang Co., announced it would hold the groundbreaking ceremony for the Lao portion of the Pan-Asia Railway on 25 April in Vientiane, at the Dongchang Hotel. It also announced that the railway is now planned for a speed of 180 km/h, in contrast to the earlier target of 120 km/h, and would thus be a high-speed railway. The article praises previously unknown Xiaoxiang for injecting “new blood” into the “going out” effort of China’s railways and for raising the profile of private enterprises generally.
- Sophak Chakrya, Lakeside eviction deadline set , Phnom Penh Post, 3 March 2011
“Some 10,000 people living at the Boeung Kak lakeside” in central Phnom Penh “have been given a deadline of next week to leave their homes or be forcibly removed, raising the prospect of what could be the largest single forced eviction in the Kingdom’s recent history. … Local developer Shukaku Inc, owned by ruling party senator Lao Meng Khin, received a 99-year lease in 2007 to develop the lake and has since partnered with China’s Inner Mongolia Erdos Hung Jun Investment Co on the project in a joint venture. … [V]illagers have denounced as insufficient the proposed compensation options: US$8,500 cash, housing in Dangkor district and two million riel ($495), or on-site relocation, the plans for which have yet to materialise.” Protesters clashed with police a few days earlier.
- 杨宁筠 Yang Ningyue, 广西推进与东盟农业合作 境外建3万亩原料蔗基地 (Guangxi expands agriculture cooperation with ASEAN: 30 thousand mu of sugarcane plantations abroad), 南宁日报 Nanning Ribao, 28 February 2011
Investors from Guangxi are cultivating sugarcane 30 thousand mu (2,000 ha) in Vietnam.
- Kenyans to protest Chinese involvement in Ethiopia’s Gibe III Dam, African Press Agency, 17 February 2011
Protesters led by the NGO Friends of Lake Turkana were scheduled to deliver a petition, “signed by more than 2,000 organizations and individuals, to the embassy of the Peoples Republic of China in Nairobi” on Sunday, “seeking the intervention of the Chinese government to either bar or advice the companies against involvement in” the Gibe III dam.
- China and Colombia announce ‘alternative Panama Canal,” BBC, 14 February 2011
The plan is to create a “dry canal” where the Pacific port of Buenaventura would be linked by rail, across Colombia, to the Atlantic Coast.
- Salai Han Thar San, “Sixty villages to be relocated for hydropower projects,” Mizzima, 10 February 2011
According to the Kachin Development Networking Group, the Burmese military authorities are preparing to relocate 60 villages from the sites of a number of hydropower projects in Kachin State, incuding the Myitsone dam, which Chinese media refer to as the “Three Gorges of Burma.” Asia World Company, which cooperates with the state-owned China Power Investment Corporation (CPI) on the dams, is constructing houses for villagers to be relocated. Asia World is owned by Lo Hsing Han, the ethnic Chinese former opium boss from Kokang who is one of the junta’s close business associates. In separate news, it has also partnered with China Port Construction and San Yi Zhonggong (3-1 Heavy Industries), a company from Changsha, to construct the new airport of the capital, Naypyidaw.
- 中国水电集团承建的缅甸耶瓦水电站竣工 (Sinohydro begins construction of Yeywa Hydropower Plant), Ministry of Commerce press release, 21 December 2010
This project on a tributary of the Irrawaddy, described in the press release as “Burma’s Three Gorges,” is the largest dam construction so far in Burma and currently Sinohydro’s largest overseas turnkey project.
- Gezhouba jituan chengjian de Jianpuzhai Dadai he dianzhan chenggong zailiu, SASAC press release, 14 January 2011
The Tatai dam in Cambodia, built by Gezhouba, has begun operation, inaugurated by Prime Minister Hun Sen.
- 闾丘露薇 Luqiu Luwei, 博茨瓦纳的中国人 (The Chinese in Botswana), Sina.com, 12 December 2010
The author, an editor for Phoenix TV, writes that there are 20 thousand Chinese in Botswana. Oriental City outside the capital is a Chinese market manned mostly by Fujianese vendors. There are also numerous construction workers. The public image of Chinese is not as favourable as of Indians (not clear whether these are also recent immigrants or local Indians), as they are not involved in local activities, but some want to change this, for example by setting up an English-language newspaper or donating to an orphanage. Overall, the situation seems very similar to Eastern Europe.
- Jamil Anderlini, “China: Making Friends With Africa,” FT.com blog, 22 December 2010 (via China-Wire)
The ceremony for the “China-Africa Friendship Award – The Top 10 Chinese Enterprises in Africa” was held in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing on Tuesday. The winners were supposedly decided by online votes, but “Petrochina, China Railway Construction Corp and ZTE,” which were given the award, “were barely able to attract a few hundred votes from the public while virtually unknown companies like Touchroad Group and Anhui Foreign Economic Construction Group received well over 6m votes each. … [T]he enterprises that won the award were expected to contribute to a new Rmb5m “China Enterprises’ Charity Fund to Africa”.
- 央企境外监管 多部委研新策 (Interministerial commission works on new regulations on central enterprises abroad), Wen Wei Po (Hong Kong), 22 December 2010.
SASAC (the State Assets Supervisory Commission) issued a “Notice on regulating individual holdings of central enterprises abroad” (央企业清理规范境外投资中个人代持产权有关问题的通知). The notice requires central state enterprises to bring under control various holdings abroad that are in the name of overseas branches, public-listed subsidiaries, or individuals. Two interministerial commissions have been set up this year to work out new regulations to reduce the risks associated with overseas investments, change approval procedures (including increasing the limit of investment at which SASAC approval is required by a factor of ten) and clarify ownership. The article stresses that the aim is not to slow down overseas investments, but the measures seem to show concern about excessive losses and insufficient central oversight, notably over “prestige projects” that are economically questionable but politically important for company leaderships.
- “Digging with the dragon,” Economist, 18 December 2010, pp. 120-121.
On December 3, Rio Tinto announced a joint venture with Chinalco to explore for ore in China. Earlier, it entered into a joint venture with Chinalco at Simandou, an iron mine in Guinea. The article calls this buying political protection (the Guinean government stripped Rio of half its leases at the site two years ago, and “it would not dare to treat China this way”) and getting cheap capital plus possible infrastructure (railways) from China. Chinalco already is Rio’s biggest shareholder, but an attempt to double the stake failed as a result of Australian regulatory resistance, and is generally described in China as the biggest acquisition failure of Chinese companies abroad in recent years.
- “Another Balkan candidate,” Economist, 18 December 2010, p. 48.
According to the article, a plan to build four hydropower plants in Montenegro to then export electricity to Italy has become a major political issue in the country. Presumably, the dams would be built by Chinese companies, which have already been active in hydropower in Albania.
- Lindsay Murdoch, E Timor counts costs of Chinese power plants , Sydney Morning Herald, 15 December 2010 (via Minjian International)
The East Timor government “removed the Beijing-owned Chinese Nuclear Industry 22nd Construction Company from responsibility” to install two second-hand Chinese oil-fuelled power plants and asked an Indonesian company, which was registered in Hong Kong just five weeks earlier, to finish the work. The change was made after an Italian company filed a report on the project that alleged poor safety practices and “acts of ‘environmental negligence'”. “While government leaders claimed the project would provide 20,000 jobs for Timorese, the Chinese company had hired only 155 Timorese workers by May this year. Dili residents say that hundreds of Chinese workers brought to Timor to work in electricity and other projects have caused social tensions among impoverished Timorese, particularly in Dili, where Chinese have fought local gangs on the city’s streets.”
- 李贵民 Li Guimin, 中国提供24亿美元贷款 加速中缅天然气项目建设(China provides 2.4 bn yuan loan to speed up construction of China-Burma gas pipeline), 网易财经, 14 December 2010
The pipeline construction complements a port construction by India.
- Marwaan Macan-Markar [sic], World Bank-backed Dam Powers Ahead, Despite Social Cost, IPS, 7 December 2010
The World Bank has provided a security guarantee for the $1.5 billion Nam Theun 2 hydropower project in Laos, inviting criticism from environmental NGOs. This marks a return to dam financing after a ten-year hiatus, clearly in response to the fact that dam construction has been booming thanks to financing by Chinese policy banks. The World Bank pitched the project as “an example of how hydropower can help support development in an economically, environmentally and socially sustainable way,” implicitly suggesting that the transparent accounting of energy sales revenues from this project sets a standard that other (i.e. Chinese) financiers are yet to live up to.
- 中工国际获委内瑞拉71亿大单复牌后现涨4.90% (CAMC resumes trading, up 4.90% after 7 bn major deal), Caixunwang, 6 December 2010 (via China-Wire)
CAMC Engineering (Zhongguo Guoji), the Shenzhen-listed international contracting arm of 中国机械工业集团, signed five contracts with 委内瑞拉农业公司 (Venezuela Agriculture Company, a state enterprise under Venezuela’s ministry of agriculture and lands) and the 国家农村发展署 (State Rural Development Authority) of Venezuela. The total value of the contracts is 7bn yuan, more than twice the total sales volume of the company in 2009. The contracts include developing a food processing industry park, the “overall development” of agriculture in the Orinoco delta, the second phase of “overall agricultural development” in 第斯那托斯 (Desnatos?), an “overall agricultural project” in 皮里度-贝塞拉 (Pirido-Bercela?) and the reconstruction of the 瓜里科 (Guarique?) River irrigation system. The contracts still have to be approved by the two governments. CAMC’s main profile is engineering contracting.
- 穆东 Mu Dong, 加大对非投入 实现转型发展–访中国有色矿业集团总经理罗涛 (Increase African investments, implement transitional development [sic]: an interview with China Non-Ferrous Mining Group GM Luo Tao), Xinhua, 2 December 2010 (via China-Wire)
China Non-Ferrous (Zhongyouse) is the Chinese partner in the Zambia-China Economic Cooperation Zone, the first of China’s government-backed overseas development zones. According to the article, there are now 13 Chinese companies in the zone, with a total investment of $1bn and 6,300 local jobs. A Lusaka “branch zone,” next to the airport, is being set up. The GM further said that his company was pioneering “green production,” an example of which is the installation of glass roofs in order to use more solar energy. As an example of corporate social responsibility, Luo said that in November the company gave the Zambian government the equivalent of $220,000 for road construction and AIDS prevention, and committed to spend $1.3 million in the next four years on charity. The company has also donated sewing machines to workers’ families to help increase family income, and provided AIDS and malaria drugs.
- “Zhongtie jukui diaocha” (An investigation of China Railway’s gigantic loss), Reuters Chinese service, 29 November 2010
This report provides further details on the Mecca Light Railway case (see below), which cost the chairman of China Railways 18th Bureau his job and prompted the head of China Railway Construction — according to the article the largest international construction contractor in the world — to move to Mecca for several months to supervise the project personally. According to this report, the losses were mainly because of differing interpretations of the contract, which resulted in the last six months in a fourfold increase of the amount of work. This necessitated the subcontractor — China Railway 18th Bureau — to bring nearly ten thousand additional workers from all other bureaux in order to complete the project on time according to Saudi demands. This was seen as a must at any cost, because top Chinese state leaders had visited the project several times. Another source of losses were the difficulties created by local authorities, some of which saw the contract — which China Railway won over a Saudi bidder — as hurting their interests. Changes of plan along the way are common: another offshot of China Railway got into a legal dispute when undertaking a contract for the construction of Palm Island in Dubai. The article reveals some other interesting details: because of regulations concerning the “holy places” of Islam, all workers and managers had to be Muslim, which meant a scramble to recruit workers in Xinjiang and Ningxia. In addition, 16 Chinese workers struck to demand more overtime pay for working during the hottest noon hours; they were fired. A Chinese businessman in Saudi Arabia commented that strikes by Chinese workers over working conditions are commonplace. A final problem is Chinese contractors underbidding each other, reckoning that even a loss is acceptable as long as it keeps workers in their jobs, both overseas and in China.
- “Rushing to invest overseas,” Beijing Review, 25 November 2010 (via China-Wire)
According to China’s Ministry of Commerce, “China’s outward direct investment (ODI) grew 1.1 percent year on year to $56.53 billion in 2009, compared with $2.8 billion in 2003. … By the end of 2009, China’s accumulated ODI had amounted to $246 billion, … 1.3 percent of the world’s total. … In the first nine months of this year, China was responsible for 49 outbound mining and metal deals, soaring 108 percent from a year earlier, said a report by the international accounting firm Ernst & Young. … Chinese companies generated $10.6 billion in tax revenues and created 438,000 jobs outside China in 2009, said the MOFCOM report. … Since 2000, Chinese companies have built around 70 million square meters of houses, 60,000 km of railways and power generating units with an installed capacity of 3.5 million kw in Africa. Meanwhile, China has extended $11.2 billion in credit to African countries in the past decade.”
- 东南亚最大水力发电站开发谅解备忘录在缅甸签署 (MoU on SE Asia’s largest hydropower plant signed in Burma), State Assets Supervisory Commission press release, 24 November 2010 (via China-Wire)
A Chinese consortium including the Southern Grid (Nanfang Dianwang), the Sanxia Group and Sinohydro signed an MoU to build the largest hydropower plant of Southeast Asia, the Mong Tung 孟东dam on the Salween in Burma, near the Burma-China-Lao-Thai border. The MoU says that the dam will be developed jointly by Burma, China, and Thailand, with the Chinese partner holding a 56% stake.
- 刘长征 Liu Changzheng, 河南国际：拿下非洲百亿吨铝矿 (Henan International: Got a million-ton aluminium mine), Jinbaowang, 24 November 2010 (via China-Wire)
The article profiles 河南国际合作集团有限公司, or Henan International, which got a concession to develop a 558 square km aluminium mine in Guinea this year. Talking about the company’s strategy, CEO Wang Jianxin 王建新 recalled that ten years ago, they got a contract to build a 112-km road in Tanzania, and took it despite a projected loss of $5 million. This earned the praise of the Tanzanian government, which subsequently “helped” them get more contracts. This case, according to Wang, demonstrates that, for the company, reputation comes first: “We cannot let our Henan people lose face.” Wang also mentions that the company’s projects in Africa largely rely on contractors; each project has just a dozen actual company employees. As an example of employees’ dedication, Wang cites the example of a man from Hebei in his twenties who was stabbed to death “defending national property from theft by local Blacks.” Although traditionally a construction contractor, the company has been expanding into iron and copper mining in Zambia and Tanzania.
- 中行百亿授信支持中国有色拓展非洲业务 (BoC supports China Nonferrous expansion in Africa with 10 bn), Jinrongjie, 22 November 2010
The Zambia branch of Bank of China approved a 10 billion yuan credit line to support five daughter companies of China Nonferrous Group (Zhongguo Youse Jituan) active in southern Africa.
- 习近平：我们要像爱护自己的眼睛一样爱护中非友谊 (Xi Jinping: We must protect Chinese-African friendship like our own eyes), Phoenix News, 20 November 2010
On the occasion of Chinese heir-apparent Xi Jinping’s visit to Angola, the article describes Angola’s largest residential real estate development, the 西安居住, in 凯兰巴凯亚, 40 km from Luanda. 700 apartment buildings are planned by CITIC”s construction arm on an area of 9 square km, with a planned population of 20,000. President Dos Santos has visited the development twice and expressed his satisfaction. In a meeting with managers of Chinese-invested companies, Xi said that these “still have some problems with product quality, labour management, and the protection of local workers’ rights.”
- John Pomfret, “China’s billions reap rewards in Cambodia,” Washington Post, 20 November 2010
“Chinese and Cambodian officials this month signed a $591 million loan package — Cambodia’s biggest ever — from the Bank of China” for a telecommunications company that is competing with Vietnamese- and Thai- invested companies. This is thus a commercial loan from a commercial bank. China also cancelled $4.5 million of Cambodian debt and announced that it may cancel a further 200 million. The article mentions that development has started on the largest ($3.8 billion) investment so far, a vast resort complex near Sihanoukville by the Union Development Group of Tianjin to be marketed mostly to Chinese buyers. Pomfret profiles a manager for the company, originally a trader from Northwest China who ran a noodle stall before being recruited by the construction project.
- 曹筱凡 石寿河 张泽伟, 中国矿业加大海外投资步伐 (Chinese mining industry accelerates pace of FDI), Tianjinwang, 19 November 2010.
The executive vice-chairman of the Chinese Mining Federation, Zeng Shaojin 曾绍金, said that, in the past 18 months, 280 Chinese mining companies have invested in 302 projects in 53 foreign countries. Over 60% of the investment went to Australia, Canada, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Brazil (i.e. not the most talked-about African or Mekong countries).
- “Enterprises need cultural adaptation in Africa,” Global Times, 19 November 2010 (via China Wire)
Following comments made by Xi Jinping (see above), Global Times writes that “Chinese companies have to rethink the way they adapt to local cultures and better handle labor relations when they extend their businesses into foreign countries.” Citing a local union in Zimbabwe that “declared war on Chinese construction companies there,” the article concludes that “overseas Chinese companies have to bear in mind that a mature multinational has to shoulder an equal share of social responsibility.” As part of a turnaround by official English-language media in China, they now assertively tackle accusations of neocolonialism by China rather than shirking the issue.
- Xinhua, 中资企业与安哥拉共抗金融风暴 (Chinese-invested enterprises weather financial storm together with Angola), 18 November 2010
Over 50 large Chinese state companies and 400-500 private companies operate in Angola, and the number of Chinese entrepreneurs and workers is around 100 thousand, according to the article. The Chinese ambassador to Angola said that, although the 2009 recession stopped many infrastructural investments, none of the large Chinese companies reneged on their contracts. CITIC raised $450 million in China in order to continue its real estate project (see 20 November). The reconstruction of the old Karenge district of Luanda, whose foundation stone was laid by President Dos Santos in November, is being done by a private Sichuanese company, Haishan International Group, which also has two other projects in Angola. Sinohydro has projects in 18 Angolan provinces, and the 20th Bureau of Chinese Railways is building two railways with a total length of 1,750 km. In 2010, the Angolan government transferred the ownership of the railway project, CITIC`s real estate project, and the port reconstruction being carried out by China Ports and Bays to Sonangol, the state oil company, which means that the servicing of the total debt of $1 bn owed for these projects will now be the direct responsibility of the oil company (and done in nature). As of this year, Angola is China`s largest oil supplier.
- 李欣忆 Li Xinyi, 汉龙海外寻矿获15亿美元贷款支持 (Hanlong’s overseas mine scoop gets support from $1.5 bn loan), Phoenix Finance, 13 November 2010
The Chengdu branch of Eximbank extended a $1.5 bn loan to Hanlong, a private mining corporation, to support overseas acquisitions. The first instalment was used for the acquisition of a molybdenum mine in Australia; talks are underway about the acquisition of another molybdenum mine in the U.S.
- 李来房 Li Laifang, 中国国家开发银行发放首笔非洲中小企业发展专项贷款 (China Development Bank issues first batch of earmarked loans for development of SMEs in Africa), Xinhua, 12 November 2010
The first instalment of a $1 million loan was issued by CDB’s Cairo branch to an Egyptian-registered company, 旺奇照明公司. The company, presumably Chinese-invested, is privately owned and manufactures light bulbs. The loan’s interest is much lower than those available from Egyptian banks. The loans are part of a promise by Premier Wen Jiabao to provide $10 bn in preferential loans to Africa, of which$1 bn to SMEs. So far, CDB has reached agreement on loans worth $300 million in Africa. CDB opened its Cairo branch — its first overseas branch — in 2009 and has since reached an agreement on joint project development with the National Bank of Egypt.
- Liu Weixun et al., “Why China Railway Construction Corporation Lost Money on the Mecca Light Railway,” Economic Observer, 5 November 2010 (via China Wire)
“The Mecca Light Rail, constructed by the China Railway Construction Corporation Limited (CRC) for Saudi Arabia, will become operational on November 13. Zhao Guangfa, president of CRC said within the company that this project was more a political mandate than a commercial project. .. The CRC has finished the task, but it has cost them 4.15 billion yuan in losses. … CRC … was recommended by the Ministry of Commerce to construct the railway. It negotiated directly with Saudi Arabia on pricing the project… instead of inviting a public bi[d]ding. … This is the largest loss Chinese enterprises have ever suffered on an overseas project. The CRC had earned a net profit of 3.37 billion in the first half of this year, but suffered a 1.36 billion yuan loss in the third quarter because of the Mecca Light Rail, dragging its revenue down 193.52 percent from the same period last year. … The CRC did not dominate the design process for the Mecca Light Rail. The infrastructure was based on an American standard while its railway system was based on a European standard. All sub-contractors were chosen by the” Saudis. “Even wall color had to be approved by the vice minister of municipal-rural affairs. … according to a source from the CRC, the Chinese government will support the CRC’s request for compensation. … Some insiders have said that … the core reason [for the losses] lies in the CRC’s inadequate evaluation of potential risks. It lacks experience in constructing overseas projects based on American and European standards and has done a poor job in reducing risks in drafting contracts. But the root of the failure lies in the crude organization and working habits the CRC formed when constructing railways at home.”
- Zhang Yuzhe, “Zhengcexing jinrong gaige zai xian jiangju” (New frontiers for policy financing reform,” Xin Shiji, 25 October 2010 (via Minjian International; in English: China’s Hazy Hunt for Policy Loan Boundaries
Since the entry of Chinese commercial banks into the financing of overseas projects, pressure has been growing to create rules for separating “policy functions” and “commercial functions” of policy banks such as the Eximbank, which since 2006 has also been granting non-concessional loans. (China Development Bank is also being restructured, as another article reports.) Advocates of this reform, including the Banks Supervisory Commission, say that there could be two criteria in deciding whether a loan was “policy related:” whether it receives risk compensation from the government and whether commercial banks are also willing to underwrite it. The separation would be in line with Western demands that China separate its commercial and aid activities, but the direct impetus seems to be commercial banks’ opposition to the role of the Eximbank as both regulatory authority and commercial actor in the overseas loan market. Oppponents of the reform, such as Eximbank head Li Ruogu, argue that it is hard to separate policy and commercial functions, since many projects receive a mixture of concessional and commercial loans.
- Will Connors, “China, Ghana agree on loans, deal,” Wall Street Journal, 25 September 2010
Eximbank has signed a $10 bn infrastructure loan agreement with Ghana. Separately, China Development Bank offered a $3 bn loan for the oil and gas sector. Ghana is preparing to begin oil production this year, and CNOOC has bought a stake in a major Ghanaian oil field, outbidding Exxon. Separately, Bosai Minerals has signed an agreement for a $1.2 bn investment in a bauxite and aluminium refinery. Finally, CDB also offered a $400 million loan for water and “e-governance.” Together, this is China’s biggest Africanloan package so far. The article notes that, last month, CDB extended a $1 bn infrastructure loan to Ecuador, and in April signed a $20 bn loan agreement with Venezuela.
- Hu Yue, “Eyes Abroad,” Beijing Review, 23 September 2010 (via China Wire)
China’s outward direct investment reached $56.53 billion in 2009, said a recent Ministry of Commerce report. By the end of last year, Chinese enterprises had established at least 13,000 companies in 177 countries, said Shen Danyang, a MOFCOM official. The article profiles Chinese renewable energy companies setting up branches in France and Italy.
- Zhang Qi, “Metals major expanding overseas footprint,” China Daily, 14 September 2010 (via China-Wire)
Guangxi Nonferrous Metals Group “is looking at nickel assets in Indonesia, and has established representative offices in Laos to scout for potash, tin, gold, zinc, lead, copper and antimony projects. The company signed six agreements for resource projects overseas worth 5.35 billion yuan ($787 million) on the sidelines of the China-ASEAN Mining Cooperation Summit Forum last Monday. This included iron ore and gold projects in Cambodia, a tin venture in Laos, a manganese project in South Africa and a tungsten antimony project in Mongolia.” The company plans to “list the Cambodian iron ore project, valued at 2 billion yuan, in Hong Kong. … Established in 2008, Guangxi Nonferrous Metals Group consists of six local State-owned enterprises, including Liuzhou-based China Tin Group.”
- Zheng Fengtian, “Overseas farmland can fill empty rice bowls,” Global Times, 12 September 2010 (via China-Wire)
The controversial suggestion to purchase farmland overseas is being mooted again after official denials, this time by a vice president of School of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development at People’s University.
- 何珊 He Shan, 委内瑞拉与中国成立合资公司 (Venezuela and China set up joint venture), Xinhua, 17 July 2010
Venezuela and China signed an agreement to set up a joint venture to invest in agriculture (rice, wheat and soybeans) and food processing (pork and fish) in the Orinoco oilfields in Eastern Venezuela (sic).
- Mitch Moxley, “China Moves from Aid Recipient to Aid Donor” (via Minjian International)
In Cambodia, China’s foreign direct investment hit a total of
eight billion dollars this June.
There is “speculation that the explosions were caused to put pressure on the KIO [Kachin Independence Organisation] by the Chinese government” as the KIO is going through tense negotiations with the Burmese junta over the control of the border.
- India Worries as China Builds Ports in South Asia,” New York Times, 16 February 2010
Eximbank is financing 85% of a new port in Sri Lanka, constructed by China Harbour Engineering. According to Sri Lankan media, Chinese investment has totalled $6 billion and exceeded that of all other countries.
- Ying Wang, “China Huadian Plans $558 Million Hydropower Project in Cambodia,” Bloomberg, 12 January 2010
PNG police have shot four looters in the Highlands region while in Lae, PNG’s second biggest city, two looters were killed. The trouble started in the capital Port Moresby last Wednesday when an anti-Chinese protest ended in violence and looting. In the same week, PNG workers clashed with management at the Chinese-run Ramu nickel mine in Madang Province, on the northeast coast, after a worker was injured by a tractor.” The article claims that “many in PNG feel an influx of ‘new Chinese’ has squeezed them out of small-scale business. Others complain about working for ruthless Chinese bosses who impose tough conditions.”
- Three Gorges Corporation to Accelerate the Pace of Overseas,” 22 February 2009 (translated by International Rivers)
China Three Gorges Corporation, China’s largest hydropower enterprise, has signed a construction agreement with Malaysia Sarawak Energy Corporation last October and a cooperative MOU on hydropower project
development with Pakistan this January. In December 2008, “to enhance China Three Gorges Corporation’s overseas expansion capacity,” the company was reorganized and renamed China Water Investment Group Corporation (China Water Investment). “China Water Conservancy and Electric Power Foreign Company (China Water and Power), which has extensive overseas experience in hydropower project construction and management, was established as a wholly-owned subsidiary of China Water Investment.” It is a common practice for state enterprises to split off foreign-based subsidiaries that act as private entities that can raise capital on stock exchanges, while the mother company remains under government control. “China Water and Power’s 2008 turnover of 1.2 billion U.S. dollars makes it one of the world’s largest 200 international engineering consulting design companies. Its current projects are located in Asia, Africa, Europe, the Americas; in total, it has projects in 25 countries and regions.”
- Matt Crook, “East Timor Kills Chinese Power Deal,” Asia Times, 3 December 2008
East Timor’s parliament voted down a government proposal for a $390 million project to build two oil-fueled power stations, tendered to Chinese Nuclear Industry 22nd Construction Co, on the basis that it would “would entail a withdrawal beyond the amount permitted by existing laws governing the country’s oil revenue-financed sovereign wealth fund.” The article evaluates this as a failure of China’s economic diplomacy in the region. Crook notes that China has financed a new building for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and
an elaborate new presidential palace is on the way. … In a seeming quid pro quo, Chinese investors may obtain 50-year land leases in East Timor, where most other foreigners are limited to 30-year deals. That’s encouraged Chinese investment, witnessed in the growing numbers of Chinese-run businesses in Dili ranging from electronics stores to restaurants to bars.
- 解析贪官外逃现象：国内利益集团暗中相助 (Understanding the phenomenon of corrupt offiials fleeing abroad: Interest groups in China provide covert support), Sina.com.cn, 12 December 2008.
This long article claims that, among the tens of thousands of officials wanted in China on corruption charges, those moving to Southeast Asia are relatively easy to capture because of local governments’ cooperation and the ability of the Chinese police to carry out direct activities. This reminds me of a case in the late 1990s when a Chinese police team came to Hungary and places ads in local CHinese newspapers encouraging readers to report criminals directly top them so they would be caught and transported to China. (The news raised a bit of a furore in the Hungarian media.) More recently, there have been intermittent claims by human rights groups that Chinese dissidents or Falungong activists have been caught and extradited in Cambodia.
- Wang Ying, “China Datang Eyes Africa as Domestic Power Use Wanes” Bloomberg, 8 January 2o08
According to this article, Hong Kong-listed Datang, “China’s second-biggest power producer,” has announced that it “plans to explore the African market as theslows domestic demand for electricity.” Datang is currently building the Stung Atay hydropower station in Cambodia as a contractor for Yunnan International, which in turn has a contract with the Cambodian government.
- We have updated the Bibliography (Working Paper 1) on 18 January 2009.
- China Banking Association, 中国银行业金融机构企业社会责任指引 (Chinese banks and financial institutions adopt CSR guidelines), 12 January 2009
It seems that the recession is indeed providing an opportunity for China and its companies to rethink the regulation of overseas projects. This document establishes guidelines for economic, social and environmental responsibility.
- New site: Burma Rivers Network (23 January 2009)
This site — run from where? — has a list of Chinese (as well as Thai, Indian and other) companies involved in dam construction in Burma. It reports on the social and environmental impacts and threats of dams as well as the accompanying militarization of the areas of construction. Interestingly, it is not explicitly political, has no content on the junta and no links to opposition websites.
- Chinos quieren construir tren que conectará Iquitos con la costa peruana (El Comercio, Peru, 13 January 2009)
A Peruvian newspaper reports that an unnamed Chinese company wants to build a railway from the town of Iquitos, in the Amazon region, to the Atlantic coast, as well as to upgrade the port of Iquitos and to build a power station in the district of Mazán. Both locations are in the province of Loreto. The article does not explain why the company is interested in this, but it is likely that Amazonian timber and other forest products are at play. Several Chinese railway projects have been announced in the past decade in South America, but to my knowledge none has yet been completed.
- Ecuador Says China Will Finance $2 Billion HydroElectric Plant
(Latin American Herald Tribune, 15 February 2009)
Ecuador’s president, Rafael Correa, announced that he was close to an agreement for a $1.7 billion loan from the Chinese government to finance the construction of the country’s largest hydroelectrical plant, Coca-Codo-Sinclaire, in the Amazon region. In addition, the president said that China is ready to take part in
the construction of the Pacific Refinery in the coastal province of Manabi, carried out by the state-run oil firm and Venezuela’s corresponding company, PDVSA. He also said that the Chinese cooperation offer included road construction, a package model familiar from Africa.
Fujian Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation deputy director Chen Ansheng said developing countries should promote gender equality in sectors such as agriculture, education, health in order to develop sustainably.
Mr Chen was speaking at the farewell banquet hosted by heads of the Fujian provincial department of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation for the participants of the female capacity building seminar for developing countries